Haematuria refers to blood in the urine.
Macroscopic haematuria means there is enough blood that it can be seen in the urine.
Microscopic haematuria refers to when there is a low level of blood that can only be seen under a microscope. No blood is seen when you look at the urine. This is usually confirmed on two urine tests sent to a laboratory for examination, rather than relying on a disptick test in the clinic. Blood may show on testing after a urine infection for up to six weeks. If blood is still present after this time then further investigations including cystoscopy is required. Urine testing requires a mid stream specimen ideally taken to the laboratory as fresh as possible within 2 hours. It whould not be performed while women are menstruating, within 72 hours of vigorous exercise or after recent trauma, urinary tract surgery or catheterisation.
There are a number of causes of blood in the urine, including stones, infection or cancer.
Because of the potential for more serious causes all patients should be investigated by a urologist who will usually arrange imaging with Ultrasound, CT scan or MRI, and a cystoscopy. Other investigations may be required.
A flexible cystoscopy is a simple investigation where the interior of the bladder is examined and is usually performed under local anaesthetic. If required your doctor can schedule you directly (fast track) for this procedure with one of our surgeons.